Kicker: SOCIETY (GOVERNMENT SUPPORT) Youth Employment Support Project for 20s Who Are Struggling with COVID-19 By Eugene Ha, Editor firstname.lastname@example.org You're worried about getting a job, right? There will be students who are about to get a job, and also there will be students who are preparing for employment. With the prolonged COVID-19, more and more people in their 20s are complaining of depression due to economic problems, including employment difficulties. I'm sure there are many of you who have the same worries. Don't worry too much! There is a youth employment support project conducted by the Ministry of Employment and Labor! You may have heard of youth employment subsidies, youth additional employment incentives, and youth employment-linked funds at least once. Let's take a look at what are the current subsidies and systems for young people like us! Employment is the most worrisome thing for college students. Furthermore, as COVID-19 is prolonged, more and more young people are complaining of depression due to economic problems including employment difficulties.’ Job Korea’, an online job platform, conducted a survey of 995 job seekers preparing for employment in the second half of the year on "employment confidence in the second half." 78.2% of the respondents said, "I feel anxious that I will not be able to get a job within this year." In addition, only 15.8% of the respondents said that the job market in the second half is likely to be better than in the first half. The most common reason for feeling anxious was "Companies that postpone hiring are likely to emerge due to the re-proliferation of COVID-19." (41%) Following deliberate self-harm due to the inability to endure depression, there is a problem of attempting extreme choices. Against this backdrop, some suggested that it is urgent to prepare national measures for young people. Accordingly, the government is implementing various policies for young people. I would like to briefly- introduce them one by one. ▶Projects currently in place ‘The National Tomorrow Learning Card’국민내일배움카드훈련과정 | HRD-Net The National Tomorrow Learning Card is a system that supports training expenses so that people can conduct vocational competency development training on their own to improve competency development. It is said that students other than the fourth grade of the university who are scheduled to graduate could not be issued, but from the second half of this year, the target was expanded to the third grade of the university. The support limit ranges from 3 million won to 5 million won per person, and 45% to 85% of the training expenses can be received. To apply, you can access the HRD-Net website, watch the video, and sign up for your identity authentication. ‘Tomorrow Fill Deduction’청년내일채움공제 (work.go.kr) Fill Deduction is a policy that helps young people who have succeeded in getting a full-time job in small and medium-sized enterprises to work for a long time and raise large sums of money. For example, if a young person collects 3 million won over two years, the government will provide 3 million won in employment maintenance support to companies, accumulating corporate contributions and collecting a total of 12 million won up to 6 million won in government employment support. The subjects are 15 to 34 years old. There is no limit to educational background. However, those who are enrolled in high school or college or taking a leave of absence as of the full-time employment date are excluded. ‘Youth Additional Employment Incentives’고용보험 (ei.go.kr) The purpose is to create quality youth jobs by supporting labor costs to small and medium-sized companies that have additionally hired young people as regular workers. The targets are small and medium-sized companies with more than five new employees who have hired young people (15 to 34 years old) as regular workers. It provides up to 9 million won per additional youth recruitment per year for three years. To apply, companies have to prepare necessary documents such as applications for incentives after hiring young people and apply through the employment insurance system. ‘Youth Employment Support Project’청년고용응원프로젝트 < 청년고용응원 | 온라인청년센터 (youthcenter.go.kr) The ‘youth employment service project’ promoted by the Ministry of Employment and Labor provides practical opportunities to prepare for employment, such as strengthening job competency and work experience. A total of five companies, Samsung Electronics, POSCO, SK Hynix, Lotte Group, and Samyang Food, are participating in the cooperation between the government and companies. Each company is in charge of designing and operating various programs, and the government supports recruiting participants, subsequent job placement, and maintaining employment. - Samsung Electronics’ "Samsung Youth SW Academy" - POSCO's "For Your Dream" - SK Hynix's "Youth High Five". - Lotte Group's "Feedback on the Results of Those Who Failed to Hire New Employees" - Samyang Food "Youth Employment Policy Promotion Support" If you go to the site, you can check more details. ▶The newly announced project "Youth Job Leap Encouragement" The government plans to provide 140,000 people from next year to 2024 by establishing a youth job leap incentive. If small and medium-sized companies hire young people as regular workers, they can receive up to 800,000 won per month and 9.6 million won per year. "Heart Health Voucher" For young people suffering from COVID-19, the government plans to establish a mental health voucher system that provides 200,000 won per month for psychological counseling for three months so that about 15,000 people can enjoy it. I have introduced youth policies that are useful to know. In addition, much more diverse youth support projects are being implemented and will continue to be implemented, so please pay attention to them. In fact, we need psychological support as well as employment measures. However, we have to find our own way to relieve depression. As job opportunities decrease and meeting appointments decrease, we often feel lethargic and depressed compared to before. I think it would be better to increase your body movement through light walks or exercise and make your own way to express and control your emotions positively!
Kicker: SOCIETY (COPYRIGHT) Copyright Found on Campus What Students Should Know about Copyright By Seo-Won Hong, Reporter email@example.com Copyright in school life has been important; however, it needs to be treated more importantly in the current situation of the pandemic. Universities started online school since last year. Recording lectures and real-time lectures, which are the main types of classes, are more likely to be recorded without permission than original lectures. Lecture materials and handouts used by professors in online class are also more likely to be distributed somewhere without permission. In addition, as the exam season comes, infringement of the copyright which is called “Sharing Jokbo” often occurs. Preventing infringement of copyright, I will introduce about copyright issues which students should know and keep during school life. Lecture Recording Recently, as online school have been conducted due to COVID-19, e-learning recording classes are frequently used as university lectures. In the case of recording lectures, students can take classes at any time and place they want and promote self-directed learning. It also has the advantage that students can repeat online lectures when they have something they don’t understand. However, students can take recording lectures at any time, so they can record and distribute lectures without permission. In addition to real-time lectures, which are often used, the risk of recording without permission cannot be ruled out. Recording lectures without permission to study for exams is an act of infringing copyright even if there is no intention for commercial purpose. Recording lecture for the purpose of study is illegal if without the permission of the professor. This applies equally to recording a lecture as well as general recording. All citizens have the right not to record, play, broadcast, reproduce, and distribute their voices against their will, and this is called the “right of voice.” It is a right derived from article 10 in the Constitution of the Republic of Korea: “All citizens shall be assured of human worth and dignity and have the right to the pursuit of happiness.” Therefore, recording a lecture without the professor’s permission is against the “right of voice” and an illegal activity that infringes copyright. In general, recording without the consent of the other side is acivil or criminal issue. This is a violation of the Protection of Communications Secrets act. It is stipulated that if it is violated, there can be imprisonment without a fine, and it can be punished for not less than one year and not more than 10 years. It shall result in compensating for civil damages depending on agreement of recording, the purpose, and the use. Recording conversations that are not disclosed to everyone or listening using electronic devices or mechanical ways violate Article 14 of the Protection of Communications Secrets act.It shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than 10 years or suspension of qualification for up to 5 years. However, all lecture recordings are not illegal. There is no problem recording for reviewing the lecture after asking the professor’s permission. However, selling recordings for economic benefits is a violation of copyright laws. According to Article 4, paragraph 1, clause 1 of the Copyright Law, lectures are defined as literary works such as novels, theses, and speeches. Accordingly, the professor has the right for copyright such as the right to reproduction, distribution, and public transmission. According to Article 2, paragraph 22 of the Copyright Law the term “reproduction” means the temporary or permanent fixation of works in a tangible medium or a remarking of works by means of printing, photographing, copying, sound or visual recording, or other means. For these reasons, recording lectures violates the right to reproduction. If it is distributed by CD, USB, or e-mail, it is infringement of right of distribution. Transmitting in the form of a file is a violation of the right of public transmission which is the right of the author. So selling and buying recording files shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than five years or by a fine not exceeding 50 million won. Lecture materials and Jokbo PPT, images, fonts, videos such as lecture recording, real-time and self-produced contents which are provided by the professor in class are protected by copyright law as a work of the professor or another person. Lecture materials on the e-campus site are only available on the e-campus site. If lecture materials are reproduced or distributed in another site, it is a violation of copyright law, so it results in civil or criminal liability. “Jokbo”, a type of lecture materials, is a collection of class notes or sample question from previous tests. Many students trade and share jokbo to prepare for the test. “Jokbo” is a derivative work of the professor’s lecture or test so sharing “Jokbo” without consent is illegal. Copyright infringement occur frequently on campus even if students don’t intend infringement. Someone who violates copyright will be liable for copyright infringement. It is necessary to check whether you violate copyright or not. In addition, students need to learn about copyright and develop copyright awareness. * This article includes a translated paragraph of on an article written on November 11, 2019 by reporters Huh Jeong-eun and Han Ah-reum from the Sangmyung University Newspaper (Korean version). Sources: https://www.smu.ac.kr/newspaper/university.do?mode=view&articleNo=704170#/list https://ecampus.smu.ac.kr/mod/ubboard/article.php?id=1&keyfield=subject&keyword=%EC%A0%80%EC%9E%91%EA%B6%8C&bwid=350688
Kicker: SOCIETY (ANIMAL PROTECTION) Animals are No Longer Objects By Eugene Ha, Editor / Su-Yeon Park, Cub-Reporter firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com Sangmyung University has small and precious popular friends. Do you happen to know? There are ‘Onsooni’, a cute little cat at Sangmyung University's Cheonan campus, and ‘Sangnyangi’ at the Seoul campus. Also, there is a cat club called 'Holding in Your Arms' that is doing abandoned animal protection activities together at the Cheonan Campus. It actually means Anseo-dong cat in its arms’, and it is a club that helps cats living in Anseo-dong as well as cats in the schools. With so many students interested, we would like to convey that a new legal provision has recently been created to ensure legal status for pet and animal protection issues that have long been a problem. - Onsooni As well as child abuse, animal abuse is still a constant social issue. Animal protection measures are better than before, but they are still a problem. To ensure the legal status of such animals, the government decided to add a new clause in the civil law, "Animal is not an object," and the Ministry of Justice announced on July 19 that it will announce a revision to the civil law. Under the current civil law, objects are defined as "natural forces to manage fluids, electricity and other things," and animals have been treated as objects among them. Therefore, relentless violence and animal abuse are occurring, and damage compensation is not being properly paid. Currently, as the number of households raising pets increases, the opinion that animals should be protected and respected has led to the revision of the law. From the Past to the Present Abuse of animals was not illegal 30 years ago. The 1991 Animal Protection Act entered the realm of crime, specifying a ban on abuse. Animal protection laws have developed slowly but steadily. However, the trend of treating animals as objects rather than as living beings has persisted for 30 years. The Animal Protection Act has been revised nine times in total since it was enacted in 1991. The law has continued to be revised based on a number of cases, specifying a provision banning animal murder, injury and abandonment. Early History of Animal Protection Legislation in Korea ● 1991/5/31 Enactment of the Animal Protection Act - No animal abuse ● 2007/1/26 Materialize and expand the scope of prohibited activities ● 2011/8/4 Additional prison sentences. ● 2013/4/5 Prevention of neglect ● 2013/8/13 Establishment of animal abuse definition regulations and ban the sale of abusive videos ● 2017/3/21 Punishment for causing death of an animal by negligence. ● 2018/3/20 Animal hoarders and dog abandonment punishment ● 2019/8/27 Ban gambling using animals ●2020/2/11 The act of causing animals to die, aggravated legal punishment, and criminal punishment for abandonment of animals. ●2021/7/19 Ministry of Justice announced legislation to revise the civil law - "Animal is not an object." European Animal Welfare Developed Countries' Animal Protection Laws Many European countries, including Germany, Austria and Switzerland, have already stipulated the law "Animal is not an object." Continuing problems with pets, how are other countries abroad dealing with it? 1. Germany: Pet Certificate Test Germany said in its 1990 amendment, "Animal is not an object. Animals are specially protected by law. The provisions that apply to goods shall apply only when there are no applicable provisions," under Civil Code Section 90a. Germany is also active in animal welfare in civil law. Since commercial sales of pets are prohibited in Germany, adoption of pets is only possible through abandoned animal shelters. In addition, the guardian must pass the adoption qualification examination considering family composition and residential environment. The dog license system, which has been implemented by the German state of Lower Saxony since 2011, consists of a total of two tests, a written test and a practical test. The first written test deals with dog common sense in various fields, from dog knowledge to related laws, such as dog and human, dog and law, and dog health. In the second practical test, the guardian's ability to cope with situations that may occur in public with dogs is tested. Thanks to Germany's strict animal protection laws and adoption system, the rate of dog abandonment in Germany is very low at 2 percent. As a result, the system proved effective by proving that the number of pets actually abandoned has decreased. (Question) How soon should a guardian praise a dog if it did the right thing? A. In 30 seconds to 2 minutes, B. In exactly five minutes. C. Up to 2 seconds. D. Time doesn't matter. The important thing is praise. (Answer) C, the shorter the time difference between the dog's behavior expression and the compliment (reward), the more clearly the dogs understand. - Example of qualification test for dogs in Germany 2. Sweden: Regulations on the Living Environment of Pets from Indoor Temperature to Air The Swedish government minimizes the incidence of abandoned pets with the pet ID registration system, while suggesting various living provisions that must be followed by guardians within the Pet Protection Laws. This is as follows: 1. The temperature of the indoor space with the pet dog should be between 10 and 21 degrees, and there should be a window with sunlight. 2. Ammonia levels of indoor air with dogs shall not exceed 10 ppm and carbon dioxide shall not exceed 3,000 ppm. 3. Pet dogs should not be tied up indoors and should not be left alone for a long time due to the nature of living in groups. 4. Dogs cannot be separated from their mother dogs for at least eight weeks of age. 5. Pet dogs should take a walk once every six hours. 6. Pet ID must be registered within 4 months of age. In this way, the regulations on abuse have been subdivided to prevent various animal abuse in foreign countries. In particular, because Korea's law is a written law system, there is a limit to defining what is not written as illegal, and there is a high risk because it can be misjudged by law enforcement officers and judges. Therefore, many people, including the Animal Freedom Alliance, are demanding that the provisions of abuse be subdivided into specific phrases. The revision is a changed expression of value recognition that animals are different from objects, which means that the human obligation category for animals has expanded. However, since the Constitution is fundamental to all laws, the next step of the revision of the civil law is to clarify the "status of animals different from objects" in the long term by specifying animal protection obligations in the Constitution.
Kicker: SOCIETY (DELIVERY) Cycle of Food Delivery: Foundation of Social Issues I Bet We All Know What is at Stake Here Do-Hyuk Kim, Cub Reporter/Yeong-Jin Choi, Reporter firstname.lastname@example.orgemail@example.com There’s no area which COVID-19 hasn’t made its way, but everyone will easily agree that food delivery industry’s growth is higher than ever. Rapid food delivery cycle via telephone was one of globally renowned culture and strength of South Korea, and development of smartphone and fear of being infected led it to be one of the world’s most efficient food delivery system. It genuinely is fast and convenient that even a toddler can order what they want, but every single step of food delivery is causing social issues. Skyrocketing complaints over internet implies that we and our society have already collected a lot of troubles over time, but people tend to disregard this issue since its uncanny ease of use. In this article, we decided to zoom in to social issues made by food delivery system microscopically and report problems of each step of ordering food. Collision between Obnoxious Customers, Restaurants, and Delivery People What would be the first step when we order something? Pick up our phone and punch a series of numbers and start saying what we would like to have? Sure. Let’s say that we order some foods online by using applications. What would we do first then? We would very likely to turn the app on, select what we want to eat for dinner, and move on to the payment window. If the restaurant offers a good chance such as “extra foods for the ones who write review events”, lots of you would write “Yes, please”. However, this whole ordering process is for normal people who are polite and are completely fulfilled with the system. Some people who are considered as “impolite” are called obnoxious* customers. They tend to think that they are more superior then the clerks, and often ask impossible and incomprehensible things like “I am so hungry at the moment, and I want the food to arrive at my place in less than 3 minutes.” Or “If you do not follow my request, I will rate your restaurant that it is such an awful place.” Koreans tend to consider a delivery person as low-educated and losers of their life. Some say that their prejudice* is justified. They answer that when they turn on the news, they can easily find out that delivery men sneak some of the foods that people already paid for. Furthermore, when they drive, many delivery people drive too fast, risking the lives of many people on the street. They seldomly break into a line just because they have a delivery to make, which also threatens the lives of many. Of course, it is true that society is focusing on the bad effects that delivery men are causing. However, that fact cannot justify people’s unprovoked* disrespect toward riders. Over 55 percent of the “riders” have answered that they want people to recognize their job from a positive point of view with the question, “What changes do you want for a better service environment?” Even right at the moment, many riders are being heavily offended by obnoxious customers without clear reasons, claiming that they are uneasy while working. *Obnoxious: Very unpleasant or rude. *Prejudice: An unfair and unreasonable opinion or feeling, especially when formed without enough thought or knowledge. *Unprovoked: Not caused by anything done or said. Delivery: Rapid Response System of Easing off Hunger Right Away Too Fast Second process of food delivery system is receiving the food I’ve ordered, and delivery is mainly done by motorbikes. This is the point where Korean food delivery system was highly praised for its expeditiousness, and also is the point where lots and lots of social issues occur. Food delivery motorbikes scarcely obey traffic rules, boasting reckless driving skills on both tarmac and pavement. Public roads are place where everyone coexists and should be respectful to each other, but these motorbikes act like they’re ruling the streets. Korean government claimed that number of deaths from Food delivery motorbike-related accidents has risen last year. The quick food delivery service was born thanks to Korean’s tendency to handle everything super quick, and this now applies to food delivery men, whom are forced to risk their lives to make it on time and give threats to other people. This should have to stop. Motorbikes not only annoy people by their exuberant driving style, but also make people unpleasant by modifications made on them. Eye-popping neon decorations and extremely loud exhaust noises make people near motorbikes infuriated. Excessively bright accessories installed on motorbikes threat cars and pedestrians especially at night. Some apartments eventually banned entry of these motorbikes in their complex due to safety and noise issues. Our thoughts on those tuned motorbikes are, police should crackdown on illegally tuned motorbikes more often and thoroughly. Delivery fee per food differentiating by restaurant’s own standards, while asking too much of it considering how postal service delivering package costs, makes consumers of food delivery service feel unfairly treated. These rates range from at least 1,000 KRW up to 6,000 KRW. We all know we have to spend more to save time and receiving food from store few kilometers away within twenty minutes is a big amount of saving, but most people agree that these fees are too highly rated. Since food delivery service is a nationwide-popular industry, I think government should kick in and offer specific guideline. The key of Korean food delivery services’ success is now holding its bigger growth back, so immediate action should take place to resolve delivery motorbike derived problems. In-App Store Ratings Threatening Restaurant’s Will to Live In-App Store Rating System After consuming what I’ve ordered, consumers can give ratings to the restaurant and delivery service whether they have enjoyed the experience. These ratings make huge influence on store’s sales figures, so restaurant owners always try their best to keep it high. Sufficient amount of reviews and five-star rating per each review are both required to meet this high standard, and some consumers wield their right and status of giving ratings to make personal profit. Not so few cases of giving the minimum amount of star regardless of the service they’ve received just for fun was once reported on television news, and these fake reviews lead to less exposure to consumers in ordering smartphone applications. Reduced direct exposure to consumers means high chance of declining sales, and in some extreme cases, entire restaurant can go out of business. Responsive attitude is required for writing ratings, and food-ordering platforms should develop filters which can cut off inappropriate reviews and leave proper ones behind. Disposable Wastes and Environmental Problem “There is no food which cannot be delivered in Korea.” Korea’s delivery service is very well-known worldwide for its speed and convenience. There are many positive effects we can count of, but many people also criticize that pollution delivery wastes are contributing to. Since COVID-19, the rate of disposable usage has skyrocketed*. Comparing with 2019, food delivery has increased over 78 percent, resulting in 19 percent increase in plastic waste, and 14 percent increase in Styrofoam*. Authoritative* document dealing with the survey on “the most severe usage of throwaway plastic” published on KEI in December 2019 has showed that 28.8 percent of people answered that delivery waste was the biggest threat. It has been long past since disposable wastes became a serious social issue, and both the consumers and food industries are deeply agreeing that using sustainable packing materials is important. Nevertheless, both of them are facing hardships because of its convenience and price. Customers are feeling guilty of the outcome that their delivery is taking a big part in environmental pollution. Yet, all they can do to lessen the waste is to check “Spoon and a pair of chopsticks not needed”. A non-profit organization to protect the environment, GreenKorea, had claimed that more options must be given for the customers to select “No throwaway container needed” as well as no spoons and chopsticks needed. Possible alternatives given these circumstances are first, customers must be able to find and choose out the franchise business operators that uses multi-use containers. Second, discounts must be supported if customers bring the containers, and third, there should be discounts on charges from franchises which uses multi-use containers. *Skyrocket: To rise extremely quickly or make extremely quick progress towards success. *Styrofoam: A brand name for a type of polystyrene: a light, usually white plastic used especially for putting around delicate objects inside containers to protect them from damage, or for putting around something to prevent it from losing heat. Food delivery service is considered both convenient and speedy. It is no wonder that people choose to deliver food for their daily meal. In spite of the given benefits, there are many issues pointed out during the cycle of food delivery. Though it is impossible to completely eliminate the food delivery system itself, we must pay closer attention of what impacts can be caused during the delivery and pay even more attention to improve and to make a better life for people, for the environment, and for the future. Sources: https://www.mk.co.kr/news/business/view/2019/04/273083/ https://www.hani.co.kr/arti/society/environment/1007290.html https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR20200912055300530 https://www.hkbs.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=628288
Kicker: SOCIETY (SOCIAL WELFARE) Hardships of University Graduates What is “NEET”? Yeong-Jin Choi, Reporter firstname.lastname@example.org Do you agree with the society’s perception of college and university graduates getting a job is becoming harder and harder? Hardships of university graduates getting a job was there before COVID-19. After the Corona virus, university students are feeling depressed that opportunities and speculations to get a job like doing volunteer work, studying abroad, taking part in extracurricular activities, and doing volunteer work abroad have been banned. Therefore, I would like to share how serious university graduates’ unemployment crisis is and illustrate how to improve the current situation. What is “NEET”? What is “NEET”? NEET is an abbreviation for not in education, employment, or training. The term is used by the government to describe a young person who is no longer in school and does not have a job or is not training to do a job. Shortly saying, NEET is a word to classify young people who are both not ready and not wanting to be employed. The classification originated in the United Kingdom in the late 1990s, and its use has spread in varying degrees to other countries and regions including Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Canada, and the United States. In the United Kingdom, where the term first originated, the classification comprises people aged between 16 and 24. Youth unemployment has been an escalating problem in the United Kingdom since 2005. Current Status of Youth Unemployment The Causes of Youth Unemployment of the United Kingdom Experts presume that the causes of youth unemployment are these: a lack of jobs, young people lack skills needed for work, credentialism*, lack of qualifications or appropriate qualification, rise in retirement age, recruitment methods, poor vocational* options, welfare, gaps between education and employment, employers prefer to work with experienced staff, young people’s expectations, lack of accurate and engaging career information, employment legislation*, employers perceptions of young people, lack of quality vocational pathways*, workfare, and so on. The Solutions of Youth Unemployment of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom is trying to fix the unemployment by youth engagement activities. The experts believe the solutions to youth unemployment are these: increase employer support, reduce employment legislation that creates a barrier for employers to work with young people, help employers to recognize the value of skills and behaviors as well as academic criteria, ensure education priorities employability skills and career learning for young people as well as quality academia, improve the quality and relevance of vocational routes and qualifications, ensure career education is aligned with the needs of the economy, local labor market information and is motivation and inspirational, help young people to value work of all entry levels to raise aspirations that there are many good jobs that are overlooked, create a welfare system that supports young people to find employment or training opportunities, and improve the coordination of all of the youth engagement activities so that information can be shared, and so that young people will benefit from collaboration and improved signposting. OCED Handling Youth Unemployment How are other countries handling youth unemployment? OCED sets out a toolkit measures that countries and stakeholders can take to tackle high youth unemployment and underemployment and to promote better employment outcomes for young pole in the long run by equipping them with relevant skills and removing barriers to their employment. They have an Action Plan for Youth to tackle the current youth unemployment crisis and to strengthen the long-term employment prospects of youth. OCED can help working with countries to develop national and local action plans and organizing workshops on good practice to implement this plan. Studies of Korea’s Youth Unemployment The unemployment rate remained unchanged at 10 percent in April from 10 percent in March of 2021. This rate is remarkable as it has risen a 1.8 percent point since December 2020. The study claims that the NEET rate reached 18.4 percent in Korea in 2017, compared with the 13.4 percent cross-country OCED average. The study also says that one of the reasons for the elevated share of college or university graduates who are NEET is that they may take breaks to attend informal educational institutions. It adds that NEETs are actually preparing for university or company entry exams or following informal education courses such as language courses to prepare for their futures. Other studies, however, indicate that the major reason of youth unemployment is because of not recruiting new employees in the period. The result shows that the country’s job market will worsen, particularly for young people, since 41.3 percent of the large firms had no plans of opening up jobs or had yet to confirm their recruiting plans for the first half of the year. South Korea’s Youth Unemployment Rate Current Situation of South Korea’s Youth Unemployment and Its Cause South Korea was among the few countries without a youth unemployment problem prior to the 1997 economic crisis. However, the problem first appeared in 1998, in the aftermath of the crisis. The main causes of the youth unemployment are these: cutting costs and replacing labor with technology in big firms, the size of the youth population is decreasing, but the trend is much slower than the decreases in the number of jobs, meaning more young people are without jobs. The educational upgrading among Korean youth is one. As more 25 to 29 age group of young people stayed in university, the proportion of young people participating in the labor market declined. Factors like the decline of the economic growth rate, increase of part-time workers, low payment employee rate, shortage of superior occupations, and a serious gap between big firms and small firms have caused severe youth unemployment too. Experts pointed out that while the United States and other OECD countries have been improving youth unemployment rates since the economic depression in 2008, the Korean situation has gotten worse. Picture of Youth Unemployment Solutions Government Offers and Experts' Recommendations The government of South Korea has announced The Solution of Youth Unemployment in September 2003 which suggests direct occupation production, reorganizing education system, and supporting workshops and vocational trainings. First, to produce direct occupations, government suggests vocational trainings such as expansion of social occupations, interning abroad, and volunteer works overseas. Government also provides programs that can help people search for their preferences on their careers. Nevertheless, the experts point out that the policies the government is promoting for the decline of youth unemployment are somewhat more advanced than the past, but at the same time hard to carry out consistently and carry obvious limitations of offering differentiated occupation services. Therefore, they suggest a partnership between school, local communities, enterprises, labor unions, as well as central and local government to promote policies. The major causes of youth unemployment are lack of jobs, gaps between big firms and small firms, and companies’ preferences of experienced employees. Nonetheless, I suppose that it is important for the government and enterprises to offer more opportunities to the youth. If the situation lasts a long time, it will become a big loss for both the youths and for the society. Expecting for the situation to improve, I hope for the best for Sangmyung students who are preparing to get a job in the middle of COVID-19. Source(s): https://url.kr/t21gvw https://url.kr/ipsvf3 https://url.kr/zg1rid https://url.kr/umcbp2 https://url.kr/ui4bde https://url.kr/abpqn9 https://url.kr/y5hjsk https://url.kr/n4fhz2 https://url.kr/c6ok8b https://url.kr/lfpyqz
Kicker: SOCIETY(LAW) The Need to Stop Stalking in the Name of Love :Until when should stalking be written off as an excuse of love? By Eun-Jae Choi, Reporter Weloveeun123@naver.com On March 25, 2021, a mother and daughters were killed one after another in an apartment in Nowon-gu, Seoul. The perpetrator's name is "Kim Tae-hyun," and he reportedly planned the crime because A, who he found out in an online game, cut off contact and did not meet him. Many people were shocked by the controversy over the crime of stalker Kim Tae-hyun, who appeared to have planned meticulously to kill three family members. However, additionally it is also known that Kim had stalked male students for years in the past. As a result, people have become more aware of stalking crimes as potential crimes that can cause murder, raising calls for improving the previously controversial stalking punishment law. <Photo of Kim Tae-hyun, the perpetrator of the Nowon-gu murder case> "Because I love you." The saying, "There's no tree that doesn't go over 10 times" used to achieve goals after trying is very appropriate to compare the psychology of stalking criminals in modern society. Why did this proverb, which started in a good sense, become negative to people? The reason is that stalking criminals are rationalizing their behavior by substituting proverbs. In fact, stalking criminals have a similar psychology to proverbs in some ways. But the saying is that if the proverb stresses the importance of 'steady effort', criminals cause false obsession, delusions and murder and assault as their goals. Why does a seemingly morbid* stalker happen? In fact, stalking criminals have a common morbid possessive and obsession with their counterparts. In this process, they do not consider the other person's intentions or feelings and show that they are all one-sided, such as expressing and demanding emotions. In the case of Kim Tae-hyun, who was mentioned earlier, he also showed strong obsession with the victim and continued to contact her and find her home address. Such a strong obsession can lead to a "delusional disorder." Delusional disorder is a state of misguided belief due to its distorted interpretation of reality. It also shows symptoms of having false thoughts about the other person's feelings or the person related to the other person and considering them as true. Therefore, even if the other party expresses its refusal, stalking is repeated because it interprets it in its own way and rather mistakes that it wants its obsession. Actually, criminal psychologists claim that the biggest cause of stalking is a sense of victimization caused by emotional deprivation*. Emotional deficiencies in family, relationships, and friendship lead to a sense of victimization, and psychology to compensate for them in the wrong way is at work. In addition, experts advised that the victim should not try to understand or listen to the perpetrators' obsession at all. *Morbid: very interested in unpleasant things, especially death, and you think this is strange *Deprivation: not have or are prevented from having something that you want or need Awareness of overseas stalking According to the National Police Agency, the number of stalking crimes reported between January and July 2020 was 2,756. An average of 13 stalking reports are received per day. However, only 298 of the 2,756 stalking crimes paid a fine of 80,000 won. Comparing the number of reports and punishment from 2018 to 2020, when stalking reports began to be managed, the number of punishments compared to the number of reports was only 19.62% in 2018, 10.6% in 2019, and 10.8% in July 2020. In other words, only one out of every 10 cases will be punished, and nine out of every 10 stalking suspects will not be punished. However, experts say stalking is a serious problem in that it is likely to develop into violent crimes such as assault, injury, confinement*, murder and sexual violence. How are stalking crimes handled overseas? First, the United States is the first country to criminalize stalking. In the 1990s, the government already established relevant regulations that defined stalking as a crime and strengthened punishment. In addition, a special law was enacted and enforced in the UK in 1997, while Germany established the "Punishment of Persistent Follow-Up Act" in 2007 to punish approaches or repeated contacts without consent from the other party. Japan also enacted the Act on the Regulation of Stalker Behavior in 2000. As the special law continued to be enacted in each country, we know that the difference can be seen in that stalking was classified as a serious crime with rapid response. *Confinement: the state of being forced to stay in a prison or another place which you cannot leave Changes made after 22 years The need for legislation to strengthen the punishment of stalking crimes has continued to be raised, but since it was first proposed in the 15th National Assembly, a total of 14 proposals have been made to the 20th National Assembly, but not a single case has been passed at the plenary session. However, the stalking punishment law was passed by the National Assembly for the first time in 22 years due to the Kim Tae-hyun incident. If we look closely at this, the sentence and amount of punishment, such as imprisonment of up to five years or fines of up to 50 million won, have increased. It is surprising that the legislation has been enacted in recognition of the seriousness of stalking in 22 years, but there is also a hidden background. That is because of the clause* 'against the will of the victim'. The clause, set out in the bill, raised the issue of effectiveness because there is secondary abuse to victims and victims may be forced and threatened by perpetrators to avoid statements. Experts say, "People think the world has changed just by looking at the creation of the stalking punishment law. However, in reality, nothing changes unless a crime occurs, so the world can change accompanied by social perceptions that respect each other, not 'because of the law, because the law is scary. " *Clause: a section of a legal document As experts said earlier, legal measures are very necessary because a premature approach to stalker crimes may cause great anger, but they should also be improved in various fields such as counseling, education, and the environment to prevent such tragic incidents in society. In reality, stalking victims are constantly complaining of mental pain, but they are not protected just because there is no physical threat. In the wake of the "Kim Tae-hyun incident," protecting victims should be treated as a top priority so that they won't be able to endanger victims in society or around them and no more unfortunate incidents occur.
Kicker: SOCIETY (LAW) Slap on the Wrist! Issues about Law Applications Yeong-Jin Choi, Eun-Jae Choi, Reporter email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Have you ever heard about the ‘Nth Room’ incident* that became a big issue in Korea? ‘Nth Room’ incident was about sexual harassment* and exploitation* of women by many men. It was a very serious crime, but when citizens protested to open all the identities of men, the request was denied and only a few of them were revealed. After that, many citizens questioned the justice of Korea, that the punishment is too light compared to what the criminals committed. Therefore, I would like to focus on the ‘Nth Room’ incident over many crimes and talk about the existing problems of Korea’s law applications*. *Incident: An event that is either unpleasant or unusual. *Harassment: Behavior that annoys or upsets someone. *Exploitation: The use of something in order to get an advantage from it. *Application: A way in which a rule or law, etc. relates to or is important for someone or something. What is Digital Sexual Violence? Government defines digital sexual violence as any kinds of crimes that happen within online and offline by using digital devices and Internet Technology. The crime includes not only to take pictures without someone else’s permission, but also to spread it, save it, or upload it. If the action is considered to violate someone’s sexual or personal rights in cyber space, the action is recognized as a form of digital sexual violence without doubt. An Illustration of Digital Sexual Violence Why is the Revision of The Law Important? After the ‘Nth Room’ incident, many laws have been renewed. Since laws that deal with sexual violence have been put back for a long time, the terrifying issue of the ‘Nth Room’ made people to focus on how many laws about sexual harassment have been neglected*. Laws to protect children and teenagers, how to punish crimes that are considered as sexual violence, and laws that were related with the Internet were the three major laws that were changed and improved. Such revisions* of the laws above are important for the following two reasons: First, it identifies clearly that digital sexual violence is also a crime. Plus, it prevents further digital crimes and helps establish a safe internet environment. *Neglect: To not give enough care or attention to people or things that are your responsibility. *Revision: A change that is made to something, or the process of doing this. Comparison Between Korea and America Even now, many sexual violence criminals are sentenced a probation* instead of going to jail. Many of those who are sentenced receive a penal* servitude* with six months minimum to five years maximum in Korea. In contrast, countries abroad are severely punishing such criminals. In America, for example, these kind of criminals these kinds of criminals are sentenced for more than ten years average. The ‘Mark P. Barnwell’ incident, which happened in America, is a similar case like the ‘Nth Room’, which is also about cyber sexual harassment, as he created and distributed the photos of 43 underaged children. He was sentenced to 35 years of penal servitude. As we can see from this case, America punishes especially hard when it comes to children’s sexual harassment. Comparing with Korea and America about child sexual violence, Korea’s law application and the degree of the punishment seems illogical and unfair. Mark P. Barnwell *Probation: A period of time when a criminal must behave well and not commit any more crimes in order to avoid being sent to prison. *Penal: Of or relating to punishment given by law. *Servitude: The state of being under the control of someone else and of having no freedom. Digital Sexual Violence Cases in Korea As technology advances, digital sexual violence problems in Korea have continuously existed. However, people had not been very conscious about the danger of digital sexual violence until the 'nth room' incident. This 'nth room' incident was so shocking and cruel that it caused a lot of *repercussions in society; however, there have been many other incidents before the 'nth room' case. Digital sexual violence term was first used for shutting down the site 'Soranet' that had the largest distribution of illegal pornography in Korea on October 28th, 2015. The ‘Soranet’ site avoided the network in the same way as changing its address. However, as more than 100,000 petitions and overseas cooperation investigations in the U.S. and the Netherlands were conducted, the owner of the 'Soranet' site was arrested and the site was shut down. The *court sentenced the defendant ‘A’ to only four years in prison, while the co-operator ‘B’ was fined only 5 million won. Not only that, there were also incidents that made the entertainment industry tumultuous*in 2018. According to the case of singer Gu Ha-ra, her ex-boyfriend was accused of threatening to distribute illegally filmed sex videos while conducting dating violence against her. The first trial found the accused innocent of the allegations*and sentenced him to one year and six months in prison and three years of probation. After the first trial's ruling, she was found dead, and there was much that was pessimistic*about her personal life. This incident made many people feel sorry. In the second trial, the court issued the same punishment as the first trial, which was criticized as a light punishment. In addition, many male celebrities were charged with violating the Special Act on the Punishment of Sexual Violence for committing crimes against women by filming and distributing illegal videos, but the cases were also punished with probation, sparking anger among many people. Choi Jong-beom and Big Bang's former members Seungri and Jung Joon-young *tumultuous : A period of time involves many exciting and confusing events or feelings *court : place where legal matters are decided by a judge and jury or by a magistrate *allegation : statement saying that someone has done something wrong *pessimistic : Someone who is pessimistic thinks that bad things are going to happen Digital sexual violence current situation and problems Digital sexual violence are coming out continuously even in the face of increased sentences. Critics point out that this is due to the court's light punishment. According to an analysis of the first trial of digital sexual violence over the past five years, the proportion of probation increased from 27.7% in 2015 to 48.9% as of 2020. Despite the tougher punishment, digital sex crimes were reported to have increased by 26.1% from 2015. In response, it was analyzed for a consistent reason that the court has a lot of probation rather than strictly applying the punishment standard. Furthermore, it is necessary to discuss the need for a system for crime prevention, such as the introduction of a system that punishes operators if they do not introduce a harmful video filtering program and camouflage*investigation. *camouflage: Hide so as not to reveal After the ‘nth room’ incident, people began to recognize the dangers of digital sexual crimes by disclosing the identity of defendants and executing policy changes. However, digital crimes are continuing with many sites avoiding investigation network and new incident cases emerging. So, people have to speak out, and it is important to solve the problem of digital sexual crimes with strong punishment by the judiciary*. *judiciary: the branch of authority in a country which is concerned with law and the legal system Sources: https://biz.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2020/05/20/2020052003302.html http://www.knnews.co.kr/news/articleView.php?idxno=1338004 https://www.newspim.com/news/view/20200331000156 http://news.kmib.co.kr/article/view.asp?arcid=0015116519&code=61111111&cp=nv http://www.mediaus.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=205701
Kicker: SOCIETY (MENTAL VIOLENCE) Emotional Abuse of University Students Young People’s Inside Is Being Rotten By Yoo-Jung Kim, Editor-in-Chief / Sol-Hyang Park, Reporter email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org "Don't show up, die quietly." "You can't die just saying I want to die." These are the comments on a post written by a Seoul Women's University student last year on “Everytime,” a university student community anonymous app. The student uploaded several posts on Everytime to gain mental comfort, but some users wrote malicious comments like mentioned. In the end, she made an extreme choice in October last year. This kind of emotional abuse is now prevalent among university students. What Is Emotional Abuse? Emotional abuse, often called psychological abuse, is a form of abuse committing mental violence - insulting, embarrassing, frightening, or otherwise manipulating someone emotionally. Closely related to verbal abuse, it is very common in any relationship and appeared in various ways. It includes bullying in school or workplaces, gaslighting, or writing malicious comments online, etc. In fact, emotional abuse is hard to define the range. Therefore, it is hard to recognize it. It can be subtle, overt, manipulative – slowly threatens someone’s mental state, not easily being noticed. It may lead to psychological trauma, including anxiety, chronic depression, or PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder.) It breaks down one person, making one have no reason for living. The Digital Prison Accident Especially these days, emotional abuse is prevalent on the Internet among young people. Besides the accident mentioned above, there was a digital prison accident last year. It was an accident that a 20-year-old University student committed suicide, as his personal information was exposed on a website “digital prison”, where illegally disseminated personal information was revealed. The site was opened around March 2020, introducing itself as a site revealing personal information of malicious criminals in South Korea. However, they subjectively defined the criminal, and even disseminated personal information of non-criminal people. <A translation of a real digital prison site> The student was one of the victims of the site. In July of 2020, the site posted his personal information such as his photos, school number, major and phone number saying that he asked someone to edit photos of acquaintances into pornography. The student explained he had never done that on his school Everytime, but the site kept his identity public. He had been under a lot of stress from malicious comments and threats, and eventually committed suicide. The police arrested a first site operatorin Vietnam, who was a drug offender and also operated the “Nth room.” It was found that he made the site to spread judicial distrust and disturb public trust in order, to cover up his crime. The site is now blocked, and the police are continuing to investigating a second operator. Emotional Abuse of University Students There is a tendency to abuse others emotionally by behaving anonymously on the Internet or in certain communities and posting negative comments. This trend is also occurring frequently among university students. Based on the previous case, the frequency and severity of emotional abuse among university students is increasing, but it is a big problem to think of it as a simple joke rather than recognizing it as "emotional abuse." Recently, there was an incident in which a teacher abused his students emotionally. We can see that university students who have committed and received emotional abuse become members of society. It should be recognized that emotional abuse, from children to university students to adults, affects each other, and has a negative impact. It is difficult to clearly determine the standard of emotional abuse, so there are not many related countermeasures or appropriate laws. These points make it difficult to establish solutions to fundamental emotional abuse. The Attitude We Need to Have Therefore, university students need to recognize the meaning of emotional abuse. In particular, in Everytime, which is famous for its community of university students, one should think from another's perspective, comment or writing. Socially, laws and systems should be discussed to protect those in need from emotional abuse by others. Rather than criticizing others, an attitude of understanding and thinking from the perspective of the person is necessary for everyone who is hidden under anonymity beyond university students. These days, both perpetrators and victims of emotional abuse are younger more than before and the intensity of emotional abuse is stronger. I hope we live a useful life rather than hurting each other in a community where everyone lives together. In particular, as students of Sangmyung University, I hope we can all become students of Sangmyung University who think, talk, act, and have a positive impact on each other. Sources : https://www.ibabynews.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=43627 https://news.mt.co.kr/mtview.php?no=2020112417202090730 https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR20200905041500004 http://www.civicnews.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=30228 https://www.womennews.co.kr/news/articleView.html?idxno=202669
Kicker: SOCIETY (FINANCE) Heavy Work in Youth Is Rest in Old Age? Youth Poverty Problem and Related Policies by Sol-Hyang Park, Reporter email@example.com There is a saying that "Heavy work in youth is quiet rest in old age." It means that if you experience hard and difficult things in your youth, you can gain experience and live a better life later. However, it is questionable whether such a saying is for the current generation of young people who are living in an unfavorable environment where poverty is becoming more entrenched than in the past. 1. The Youth Poverty The current youth, who have the best qualifications in history due to their high college entrance rates, are facing difficult times. In Korean society, where college graduation has become mandatory, the majority of young people start their careers by paying off their student loans. Even if one barely gets a job, what young people first meet in the real society is continual restructuring, an unstable labor market, and rising housing prices. According to the report by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs in 2017, the poverty rate between the ages of 25 to 29 has been rising steadily from 4.7% in 2013, 5.9% in 2014 and 7.1% in 2015. Moreover, once poor young people are very likely to remain in poverty. In fact, the relative income poverty rate of young people aged 19 to 34 was 6.7% in 2006, and the poverty rate was 6.3% in 2015 when they turned 28 to 43. As a result, once poor young people are not easy to get out of poverty no matter how much effort they make. What policies has the government introduced to solve these youth poverty problems? 2. Youth Income Guarantee System\ To solve the problem of youth poverty, Seoul and Gyeonggi Province introduced 'Youth Allowance' and 'Youth Basic Income'. In the case of Gyeonggi-do Province, all young people aged 24 are paid unconditionally. In the case of Seoul, the benefits vary depending on the qualification requirements like young people aged 19 to 34 who are unemployed or those who are more than two years old after graduation. It is seemingly a clean and good policy. However, there is a common problem with both policies. Among young people, if they are recipients of national basic livelihood security, the government takes it as a double payment, so they are excluded from benefits. Seoul officials tried to allow basic livelihood recipients to receive youth allowances, but the Ministry of Health and Welfare said it was difficult. It is a welfare policy that goes against equity. In other words, the poorer the person is, the more isolated he or she is from welfare. 3. Young Tomorrow Deduction “The Young Tomorrow Deduction (청년내일채움공제)” policy has been implemented since July, 2016 to promote the inflow of unemployed young people (ages 15 to 34) into small businesses, to support long service and assets building for young people employed in small businesses, and to ease wage gaps with large companies. There are two-year and three-year forms. In the case of the two-year form, if a young person (aged 15-34) who is employed for the first time in a company that has joined the Youth Tomorrow Fill Deduction pays a total of 3 million (1.25 million per month) for two years, he can receive 16 million and (+interest) two years later. In the case of the three-year form, if one pays a total of 6 million (1.65million per month) for three years, he can receive 30 million. Only young people who are employed by companies certified as "root companies" can join. While it may serve the purpose of maintaining long service for young people and raising lump sum money, one of the challenges is that the workplace is small businesses. Workplaces can be very poor and disastrous. Young people should have to choose the company carefully. The moment you are simply blinded by money, you are bound to regret it. In fact, the project is not only for young people but also for small businesses. All conditions could not be met only by young workers. It is inevitable for young people to endure hard working hours. 4. The Youth Business Internship System "The Youth Business Internship System (청년취업인턴제)" enhances the possibility of full-time employment for unemployed young people through internships by supporting part of the company's labor costs for up to one year. It is for unemployed young people (aged 15-34). The process is five step : applying for personal internships → examination of qualifications → job matching and counseling → pre-job training → internship. It seems to be a good policy for young people preparing for employment. However, judging from the annual surge in youth unemployment, it seems not to have much effect. This is expected to continue with the Corona crisis. I pointed out the main government policies for young people. In addition, there are several other policies supporting tuition and housing expenses for young people. Also, large companies, such as POSCO, are actively supporting young people. Please make sure to look into the benefits you can receive through these links. Even if the benefits are minimal, it would be better than not knowing! (https://www.korea.kr/special/policyCurationView.do?newsId=148864193&pWise=main&pWiseMain=K3) (http://youth.posco.com/posco/edu/index.php?mod=education&pag=education01) Major policies for young people mostly focus on only employment. Even this is doubtful of effectiveness. The youth welfare policies should be integrated in terms of income, employment, assets and housing. Young people should be a practical subject of welfare, as they are the major growth engines in the future.I hope that young people will be rewarded later as much as they have suffered. Sources : https://www.pressian.com/pages/articles/264439#0DKU https://newsroom.posco.com/kr/%EC%B2%AD%EB%85%84-%EB%81%9D%EB%82%A0-%EB%95%8C%EA%B9%8C%EC%A7%80-%EB%81%9D%EB%82%9C-%EA%B2%8C-%EC%95%84%EB%8B%88%EB%8B%A4/ https://www.ytn.co.kr/_ln/0102_202010131728326438 https://www.sbcplan.or.kr/main.do?introGbn=02 http://repository.kihasa.re.kr/bitstream/201002/20831/1/2017.2%20No.244.02.pdf